In the case of heart surgery, in the operating room there will be a team composed of highly trained experts in the field: the cardiovascular surgeon, the assistant surgeon, the cardiovascular anesthesiologist, the perfusion technologists and the cardiovascular nurses. All of the personnel is qualified to take care or any heart problems.
The coronary bypass, one of the most common surgery type, involves deviating the blood from a blocked artery to another healthy section of the body. During these procedures, the sternum is divided, the heart stopped, so that the flow of blood gets a new route that will help the brain and body get the proper amount of oxygen it needs.
A valve replacement surgery happens when the valves do not close or open properly. That specific segment that malfunctions is to be replaced with human or animal tissue or man-made materials like plastic, carbon or metal. An alternative to this procedure is a transmyocardial laser revascularization procedure. It occurs when the hearts lacks the oxygen. Lasers will increase the inner diameter of the channels in the heart so that the heart receives its blood richer in oxygen.
The aneurysm repair surgery occurs when the interior wall of a blood vessel needs to be replaced or patched with an artificial tube so that the blood flows to the heart in normal conditions.
When the vessels that transport blood to the head and brain are dysfunctional, a carotid endarterectomy surgery is needed. Two large carotid arteries on the sides of the neck and other two smaller vertebral arteries at the back of the neck transport blood to the brain. When one of them has its inner tubes thickened with fat deposits, a stoke can happen. A small incision is usually made in the spot with fat deposits and the surgeon removes the plaque.